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Fabric manufacturing

Mar 31st, 2022 at 12:04   Automobiles   Baharampur   137 views
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Fabric manufacturing

Textile fabric may be defined as the flexible assembly of fibers or yarns, either natural or manmade. It may be produced by a number of techniques, the most common of which are weaving, knitting, bonding, felting or tufting. Conventional fabrics (woven, knitted) are produced in such a way that the fibers are first converted into yarn and subsequently this yarn is converted into fabric. The fabrics can also be produced directly from the fibers. Such fabrics are termed as nonwovens. Each of these methods is capable of producing a large number of fabric structures, depending upon the raw material, machinery and the process involved. These fabrics are used for a wide range of applications from clothing to the technical purposes.

1 Weaving

The history of weaving dates back to ancient times, when human beings used woven fabrics to cover themselves. There are evidences that Egyptians made woven fabrics some 6000 years ago and silk became economically important in China 4000 years ago. It is the most commonly used technique of fabric manufacturing. The woven fabrics have a huge number of application areas like apparel, home textiles, filters, geo textiles, composites, medical, packing, seatbelts, industrial products, protection, etc.

The woven fabrics are produced by interlacement of two set of yarns perpendicular to each other, the first set includes the threads running lengthwise in the fabric, while the second is represented by the threads placed in cross or width direction. The fabrics have varying structure, depending on the interlacement pattern of the yarns. This sequence of interlacements is termed as the weave design of the fabric. The properties of fabric are governed by its weave design as well as the fiber content used as the raw material.

2 Warp Preparation Steps

A summary of the process steps from yarn to the final product, here the warp yarn is subjected to a number of processes, termed as warp preparation before conversion into fabric, while weft yarn does not require any specific preparation. The warp preparatory process consists of the following operations: winding, warping, sizing and drawing-in.

Yarns produced in spinning are used as input of the warp preparation. Winding helps to prepare the yarn for a package which requires shape and size. Weft yarn is then provided to loom, while warp yarns are processed to give a sheet of yarns on warp beam by the process called warping. A coating of size material is applied to the yarn in the subsequent process to impart strength and make the yarn smooth. This warp sheet is then drawn in from the droppers, heald frames and the reed. The actual fabric forming process is carried out at the loom, where this warp sheet and weft are interlaced to give woven fabric.

This is only a brief introduction about it.

Whats the Difference? Gauze Pads vs. Gauze Sponges

Gauze is a type of thin medical fabric with a loose open weave used in wound care. Both gauze pads and gauze sponges are made of 100% cotton. They wick vertically to draw exudates out of wounds and are stronger than other types of dressings due to their longer fibers. Our gauze is offered in both sterile and non-sterile forms. For open wounds it is recommended to use sterile gauze only.

Gauze pads and gauze sponges are used in a number of different applications and are great for general cleaning, dressings, prepping, packing and debriding wounds. It can also be used as a temporary absorbent dressing over wounds. You would want to use gauze for cushioning or packing a wound, helping to heal the tissue from the inside out. The difference between these items are that gauze pads come with one per pack, while gauze sponges come with two or more per pack.


An absorbent material has small holes in it. When a liquid, such as water, comes into contact with a material with tiny holes in, such as paper or a sponge, the liquid is drawn into the tiny holes. It spreads out through the material using the holes. An absorbent material can even draw a liquid upwards. If you put a sponge or dishcloth on top of some water on a kitchen surface the water will go up into the absorbent material.
We use absorbent materials to soak up spills and for drying up. Kitchen towels (both cloth and paper) are absorbent. We use them for drying the washing up and for drying ourselves after a bath or a shower. Cotton wool is another absorbing material. It is used in bandages to absorb blood from a wound. A material called oasis is used to absorb water in a plant display, and pass it on to the plants.

Absorbent materials can be a problem. For example you do not want to be caught in a shower of rain when you are wearing absorbent materials. They will hold on to the water, making you feel wet and cold. Bricks absorb a little water. Those at the bottom of a wall absorb water from the ground. If this water moved up the wall and into the building it could cause damp walls. The water is stopped by placing a non-absorbent material between layers of bricks near the bottom of the wall. You may see this material as a black line in the cement low down in a wall. It is called a damp-proof course.

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