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What Are Nootropics?
Whether you're a college student hoping to ace your exams, a busy professional striving for a promotion, or an older adult concerned about dementia, the idea of popping a pill that boosts your brainpower might seem pretty appealing. So perhaps it's not surprising that the use of nootropics -- aka cognitive enhancers or smart drugs -- is on the rise. ;
The term "nootropics" first referred to chemicals that met very specific criteria. But now it's used to refer to any natural or synthetic substance that may have a positive impact on mental skills. In general, nootropics fall into three general categories: dietary supplements, synthetic compounds, and prescription drugs.
While health experts generally agree that taking a prescription nootropic for an FDA-approved purpose (such as a stimulant medication if you have ADHD or donepezil if you have Alzheimer's) may be helpful, the use of any type of cognitive enhancer in healthy people is far more controversial.
Today, many types of surgery can be safely and painlessly performed while you are awake. Local anesthesia, also called local anesthetic, is usually a one-time injection of medicine that numbs a small area of the body. It is used for procedures such as performing a skin biopsy or breast biopsy, repairing a broken bone, or stitching a deep cut. You will be awake and alert, and you may feel some pressure, but you won't feel pain in the area being treated.
When is local anesthesia used?
Local anesthetics have made it possible to perform many surgical procedures quickly, with less preparation and a shorter recovery time. General anesthesia and anesthesia that sedates you can cause side effects such as nausea, and a physician anesthesiologist must monitor you if you are administered these types of anesthesia — during the procedure and for a time afterward. However, with local anesthesia, side effects and complications are rare and usually minor. For example, you may experience some soreness where the medication was injected. In rare cases, you could have an allergic reaction to the anesthetic.
A substance that keeps cells from making or using estrogen (a hormone that plays a role in female sex characteristics, the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy). Anti Estrogen ;may stop some cancer cells from growing and are used to prevent and treat breast cancer. They are also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. An anti-estrogen is a type of hormone antagonist. Also called estrogen blocker.
Antiestrogens, also known as estrogen antagonists or estrogen blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent estrogens like estradiol from mediating their biological effects in the body. They act by blocking the estrogen receptor (ER) and/or inhibiting or suppressing estrogen production. Antiestrogens are one of three types of sex hormone antagonists, the others being antiandrogens and antiprogestogens. Antiestrogens are commonly used to stop steroid hormones, estrogen, from binding to the estrogen receptors leading to the decrease of estrogen levels. Decreased levels of estrogen can lead to complications in sexual development. Antiandrogens are sex hormone antagonists which are able to lower the production and the effects that testosterone can have on female bodies.