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Forging produces pieces that are stronger than an equivalent cast or machined part. As the metal is shaped during the forging process, the internal grain deforms to follow the general shape of the part. This results in a grain that is continuous throughout the part, resulting in its high strength characteristics. Titanium forgings are broadly classified as either cold, warm or hot forgings, according to the temperature at which the processing is performed.
Titanium powder has long been used as an alloying additive for a variety of applications. Recently, technological advances in the production and use of titanium powder have opened doors into many fields including powder metallurgy, thermal spray, laser cladding, metal injection molding, and additive manufacturing.Titanium is a transition metal with a white-silvery metallic appearance. Titanium material is a lustrous, strong metal that exhibits good resistance to atmospheric corrosion. The atomic number of titanium is 22 and it belongs to the d-block, period 4, group 4 of the periodic table. Pure titanium is insoluble in water but soluble in concentrated acids.The most common type of tubing used to build titanium bicycles is called 3Al-2.5V. This is titanium that is alloyed with 3% aluminum and 2.5% vanadium. Another common titanium alloy is 6Al-4V. This is a harder alloy that is often found on higher-end bikes. Because it is harder to work with and more expensive, 6Al-4V is sometimes used to make smaller parts such as the head tube or dropouts.
The fabrication and electrochemical properties of a 3D printed titanium electrode array are described. The array comprises 25 round cylinders (0.015 cm radius, 0.3 cm high) that are evenly separated on a 0.48 × 0.48 cm square porous base (total geometric area of 1.32 cm2). The electrochemically active surface area consists of fused titanium particles and exhibits a large roughness factor ≈17. In acidic, oxygenated solution, the available potential window is from ~-0.3 to +1.2 V. The voltammetric response of ferrocyanide is quasi-reversible arising from slow heterogeneous electron transfer due to the presence of a native/oxidatively formed oxide. Unlike other metal electrodes, both [Ru(bpy)3]1+ and [Ru(bpy)3]3+ can be created in aqueous solutions which enables electrochemiluminescence to be generated by an annihilation mechanism. Depositing a thin gold layer significantly increases the standard heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant, ko, by a factor of ~80 to a value of 8.0 ± 0.4 × 10?3 cm s?1 and the voltammetry of ferrocyanide becomes reversible. The titanium and gold coated arrays generate electrochemiluminescence using tri-propyl amine as a co-reactant. However, the intensity of the gold-coated array is between 30 (high scan rate) and 100-fold (slow scan rates) higher at the gold coated arrays. Moreover, while the voltammetry of the luminophore is dominated by semi-infinite linear diffusion, the ECL response is significantly influenced by radial diffusion to the individual microcylinders of the array.